1. Chii chinonzi mushonga unodzivirira zvirwere?

Mushonga unodzivirira zvirwere unodzidzisa muviri kudzivirira hutachiona kana chirwere chakatsanangurika. Kuti pakwanise kugadzirwa mushonga unodzivirira zvirwere, vanoiita tsvakurudzo vanofanira kumbotanga vaiita onororo yemishonga yacho muvanhu. Imwe mishanga inodzivirira zvirwere inenge ichida kuonekwa kuti haina zvainokanganisa here pahutano hwemunhu uye kuti immune system yake ichadaira zvakadini pamishonga inenge iri patsvakurudzo iyi. Immune system yako ndiyo inokudzivirira pazvirwere. Imwe mishonga inodzivira zvirwere inenge iri patsvakurudzo, inoshandiswa kuona kuti inogona here kubatsira kudzivirira kana kurwisa hutachiona kana zvirwere. Zvinotora ongororo dzakawanda dzemishonga inodzvivira zvirwere pakuda kuedza kuona kuti pane usina njodzi here uye uchishanda zvakanaka. 

 Parizvino hakuna mushonga unodzivirira HIV kana AIDS une razinesi.

2. Chii chinonzi tsvakurudzo yeHVTN 705/HPX2008

HVTN 705/HPX2008 ino ongorora mishonga miviri iri patsvakurudzo inoshanda kudzivirira hutachiona hweHIV. Mishonga iri patsvakurudzo inonzi Ad26.Mos4.HIV ne Clade C gp140. Mishonga iyi yakagadzirwa nevanonzi Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V.  Kubva zvino takuidaidza kuti Ad26 neProtein kana kuti mishonga iri patsvakurudzo.

Mushonga weAd26

Mushonga weAd 26 unogadzirwa nehutachiona hunonzi Adenovirus rudzi 26. Mushonga uyu une zvidimbu zveHIV zvakaiswa mauri. Wakagadzirwa kuti ukwanise kugadzira maproteins akafanana neayo anowanikwa muHIV. (MaProteins tunhu twunowanikwa muzvipuka zvese zvinorarama zvakaiita semumuviri wemunhu nehutachiona hwakaiita seHIV). Immune system yemuviri inogona kudaira kumifananidzo yemaHIV proteins ari mumishonga iri mutsvakurudzo. Uku kunonzi kudaira kwemuviri pamushonga. Kudaira kwemuviri pamushonga kunogadzirira muviri kuti ukwanise kuziva maproteins mamwechetewo seari muHIV nekuzorwisa utachiona kana munhu akazotapura HIV. Adenovirus rudzi 26 inogona kukonzeresa chando nezvirwere zvekusafema zvakanaka. Zvakadaro, Adenovirus ichange ichishandiswa mutsvakurudzo ino yakapedzwa simba zvekuti haiikwanise kukonzeresa urwere uye haina njodzi kuvanhu.

Mushoga weProtein

Mushonga weProtein Cl;ade C GP140 wakagadzirwa nemaproteins akafanana nemaproteins anowanikwa pamusoro peHIV. Izvi zvinogona kuti muvuri udaire kumushonga. 

Mushonga weProtein mutsvakurudzi iyi wakasangananiswa neadjuvant inonzi Aliminium Phosphate. Adjuvant chigadzirwa chinowedzerwa mumushonga unodzivirira zvirwere kuti ubatsire muviri kuwedzera kudaira pamushonga. Aluminum inoshandiswa pane mishingonga yekudzivirira zvirwere yatinoziva yakawanda yakaiita se Hepatitis A ne B, ditheria ne tetanus. 

Zvigadzirwa zvinoshandiswa mutsvakaurudzo iyi hazvishandiswe neHIV mhenyu, yakauurawa kana kuti macelle evanhu ane HIV kana AIDS.

Tinogona kukupai rumwe ruzivo rwakatsanangurika pamusoro petsvakuridzo dzemishonga inogona kudzivirira zvirwere kana muchida.

3. Ndeapi mapazi kana mapato anenge achioona nezve tsvakurudzo?

VeNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) NEjANSSEN Vaccines & Prevention B.V ndivovakagadzira tsvakurudzo iyi.

Jassen Vaccines & Prevention B.V ndivo vanoona nezvekubudirira kwechironga nekuona kuti mishonga yekudzivirirwa zvirwere inoda kushandiswa patsvakurudzo iripo. NIAID ibato reNational Institutes of Health, inovavo bato rehurumende yeUnited States.

HVTN mubatanidzwa wepasi rose wanamazvikokota vemutsvakurudzo, vadzidzisi, nevagari vemunharaunda vanoda kutsvaga mushonga wekudzivirira chirwere cheHIV unonyatsoshanda uye usina njodzi. HVTN inopihwa mari neNIAID uye tsvakurudzo iyi iri kuwanawo chidimu chemari kubva kuBill & Melinda Gates Foundation ne Janssen Vaccines & Prevetion B.V.

4. Tsvakurudzo ichaiitwa rini uye kupi?

Tsvakurudzo yakatarisirwa kutanga kutora vanozvipira kupinda mutsvakurudzo muna Gumiguru 2017. Zvichange zvichiitwa kunzvimbo idzi

  • Malawi: Lilongwe
  • Mozambique: Maputo
  • South Africa: Bloemfontein, Brits, Cape Town (Emavundleni, Khayelitsha, and Masiphumelele), Durban (Chatsworth, eThekwini, Isipingo, Tongaat and Verulam), Elansdoorn, Klerksdorp, Ladysmith, Mamelodi, Medunsa, Mthatha, Rustenburg, Soshanguve, Soweto (Bara and Kliptown), ne Tembisa
  • Zambia: Lusaka and neNdola
  • Zimbabwe: Harare

5. Tsvakurudzo iri kuiitirwei?

Tsvakurudzo dzse dzeHVTN dzinoshanda kubuditsa donzvo redu rekutsvaga mushonga unodzivirira HIV unonyatsoshanda usina njodzi. Chinangwa chikuru chetsvakurudzo ndeche;

  • Kuoongorora kuti mishonga wekudzivirira zvirwere inokwanisa kudzivirira kubata HIV
  • Kupa rumumwe ruzivo rwakasanangurika pamusoro pekusava nenjodzi kwemishonga inodzivirira zvirwere
  • Kuti tiwane umbowo hwekuti mishonga inodzivirirra zvirwere ingashanda sei pakudzivirira HIV

6. Vanhu vangani vachapinda mutsvakurudzo, uye ndiani angapinda?

Tsvakurudzo ichapinza madzimai 2600 vanozvipira. 

Kuti vapinde mutsvakurudzo iyi, madzimai anofanira kunge vane hutano hwakanaka, vane mazera ari pakati pemakore 18 kusvika 35, uye vasina hutachiona hweHIV. Madzimai haafaniri kuva akazvitakura kana kunge vachiyamwisa. Pane zvimwe zvinofanirwa kuzadzikiswa kuti vakodzere kupinda mutsvakurudzo. Tichabvunza madzimai nezveutano hwawo, tovaongororra miviri yavo nekutora ropa neweti yatinozonoongorora. Tichabvunzawo madzimai nemaererano enyaya dzepabonde uye kushandiswa kwezvinodhaka. 

7. Mishonga yekudzvirira zvirwere yetsvakurudzo haina njodzi here?

Hatinyatsoziva njodzi dzese dziri pamishonga yekudzivirira zvirwere iri mutsvakurudzo k. Mushonga wekudzivirira zvirwere wepretein wakangopihwa kuvanhu mazana matatuuyewo mushonga weAd26 wakapihwa vanhu zana negumi. Kunyange hazvo vakatanga kupinda mutsvakurudzo pasina akamboita dambudziko rehutano nekuda kwemishonga yekudzivirira zvirwere izvi, panogona kuvanemukana wekuva nematambudzika asinga tarisirwe. Chimwe chinangwa chetsvakurudzo ino ndechekuoona kuti mishonga yekudzivirira zvirwere iyi haina njodzi here ikapihwa vanhu vakawanda. Hutano hwevanhu vanenge vazvipira kupunda mutsvakurudzo huchange huchitarisiswa nanamukoti nachiremba panguva yose yamunenge muri mutsvakurudzo.                                    

8. Mishonga yekudzivirira zvirwere yetsvakurudzo ingadzivirira vari mutsvakurudzo mukubatira HIV here?

Vanenge vazvipira kupinda mutsvakurudzo havafaniri kutarisira kudzivirirwa kubva mukabatira HIV nemishonga yekudzivirira zvirwere yemutsvakurudzo. Zvakadaro, vanenge vazvipira kupinda mutsvakurudzo vanogona kutadza kuwanana mushonga wekudzivirira zvirwere wemutsvakurudzo nekuti chidimbu chevanhu vazvipira kupinda mutsvakurudzo vachawana mushonga-siri. Mushonga siri mutsvakurudzo iyi imvura yakacheneswa nemishonga nemunyu.

Tsvakurudzo iyi yakagadzirwa kuda kuoa kuti mishonga yekudzivirira zvirwere yemutsvakurudzo inshanda here kudzivirira kana kurwisa HIV.

Nekuti hatizivi kuti mishonga yekudzivirira zvirwere yemutsvakurudzo inoshanda here kudzivirira HIV/AIDS vazvipira kupinda mutsvakurudzo vachapangwa mazano ekuti vasabatira HIV uye vachaziviswawo dzimwe nzvimbo dzavanogona kuwana rumwe rubatsiro rwekudzivirira kubata HIV.

9. Zvichatora nguva yakareba sei kuti tizive kana mishonga yekudzivirira zvirwere yetsvakurudzo iyi ichishanda?

Tinotarisira kuziva kuti mishonga inodzivirira zvirwere yemutsvakurudzo iyi iri kushanda kudzivirira kubata HIV mumakore angangoita mana. Zvinogonekawo kuti tingazviva pachiri pedyo.

10. Hutano nekodzero dzevachapinda mutsvakurudzo zvichachengetedzwa sei?

Kuchengetedza hutano nekuremekedza kodzero dzevachapinda mutsvakurudzo zvinokosheswa nemunhu wese ari kuHVTN ne Janssen Vaccines. Pasina vanozvipira lkupinda mutsvakurudzo, hatizombokwanisa kuwana mushonga unodzivirira kubatira HIV.

Danho rekutanga pakuchengetedza kodzero dzevazvipira kupinda ,utsvakurudzo kuvapa ruzivo rwakakwana pamusoro petsvakurudzo yacho vasati vapinda mutsvakurudzo. Vashandi vepakiriniki vanopa vanhu ruzivo maererano nezvichashandiswa mutsvakurudzo nematanho ese anotorwa mutsvakurudzo, njodzi dzingangovapo nerubatsiro zvingangowana vazvipira kupinda mutsvakurudzo, nekodzero dzavanadzo. Izvizvi zvinosanganisira kodzero yekupihwa ruzivo rutsva pamusoro petsvakurudzo zvingangodaro zvichizoiita kuti vadekuramba vari mutsvakurudzo, uye kodzero yekusiya tsvakurudzo panguva yavanenge vada.

Munguva yetsvakurudzo. Vashandi vepakiriniki vanonyatsoongorora vazvipira vese kupinda mutsvakurudzo kuona kuti mishonga yekudzivirira zvirwere yemutsvakurudzo haisi kukonzeresa matambudziko ehutano. Vashandi vepaclinic vanobvunzawo vapinda mutsvakurudzo kuti hapana here mamwematambudziko avari kusangana nawo pakugara munharaunda nekudza kwekuva mutsvakurudzo, kana aripo vashandi vepakiriniki vanovabatysira.

Pane mamwe mapoka akawanda anobatsira kuchengetedza kodzero nehutano hwevapinda mutsvakurudzo;

  • Vanoona nezvekusapinzwa munjodzi kwevari muchirongwa nevakazvimiririra vanoongorora mafimbisirwo ebasa vacharamba vachitarisa nezveutano zviri kubuda muongororo, kuti vakwanise kuona kuti hapana njodzi here kuramba vachipa vanhu majekisni
  • Institutional Review Board (IRB) KANA Ethics Comitee (EC) inoongorora nekutarisa hurongwa hweongororo yekiriniki imwe neimwe iri kuita ongororo, kusanganisisra ruzivo rurikupihwa vanhu pamusoro petsvakurudzo, mafambiro etsvakurudzo nematambudziko ehutano ari kusanganikwa navo nevanenge vazvipra kupinda muchirongwa
  • IRB/EC inotarisawo kana kodzero dzevazvipira kupinda mutsvakurudzo kana dziri kuremekedzwa
  • VeSouth Africa Medicines Control Council, pamwechete nemasangano anoona nezveutano munyika dzimwe vanoongorora mabatirwo etsvakurudzo uye vanoda zvinyorwa pamusoro pekuchengetedzeka kweutano hwevanhu vari mutsvakurudzo
  • Ve US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) vanoongororrawo tsvakurudzo. VeFDA vanotara mirauwo yeUS yakanangana netsvakurudzo muvanhu nekushandishwa kwemaVaccines  mutsvakurudzo.
  • Kiriniki imwe neimwe ine Institutional BioSafety Comitte (IBC) inoona nezvemagadzirirwo kwemishonga yese yemaVaccines mumaPharmacy nemashandisirwo aanoitwa mukiriniki.
  • Mamwe makiriniki aneSpecial Ethics Committes anoona nnzvimbo dzinochengetwa zviratidzwa zveropa nezvimwewo zviratidzwa. Nzvimbo idzi dzinonzi Bio-banks kana kuRepository
  • VeSouth Africa Department of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) vane boka rakasanangurika rinoongorara nekubvumidza vakumbira vese kupinza zvekushandisa zvakagadzirwa nenzira dzescience zvakafanana neAd26 vaccine mutsvakurudzo ino Kiriniki imwe neimwe yemutsvakurudzo ine Community Advisory Board (CAB). Vamiririri vayo vanhu vemunharaunda vanotaura zvinonetsa nezvinodiwa nevanhu munharaunda pamwe chete nevapinda mutsvakurudzo kune vari kuita tsvakurudzo yacho. Vamiririri veCAB ndivo vevamwe vanhu vanogadzira tsvakuira imwe neimwe. Vanobatsirawo kugadzira kana kuongorora ruzivo runopihwa vapinda mutsvakurudzo

11. Kuti mishonga yekudzivirira yetsvakurudzo ingakonzera kuti ongogroro yeHIV kuti ibude ichiratidza kuvapo kweutachiona here?

Hongu.Vari mutsvakurudzo vangangoita kudaira kwezvinobuda muongororo kana “kuratidza kuti pane hutachiona hweHIV” padzimwe mhando dzeongororo dzeHIV dzinoshandiswa. Kana ari mutsvakurudzo akawana mushonga wetsvakurudzo unodzivirira HIV, muviri wake ungangogadzira masoja anodzivirira zvirwere eHIV. Ongororo dzakajairika seRapid HIV test (ongororo yekubaiwa pachigunwe) dzinotsvaga huwandu hwemasoja ekudzivirira HIV sechiratidzo cheutachiona hweHIV. Nekuda kweizvi, munhu anogona kuita ongororo inoratidza seane utachiona kunyangwe asina hutachiona hweHIV. Izvi zvinonzi vaccine-induced sero-reactivity, kana kuti munoona izvi zvichinzi vaccine-induced sero-positivity (VISP).Hapana matambudziko ehutano maererano neVISP.

 Vanhu vane VISP vanoda ongororo dzakatsanangurika kuti tione kuti zvinobuda muongororo zvirikukonzerwa neVISP here kana kuti HIV yechokwadi. Makiriniki etsvakurudzo arikuita tsvakurudzo iyi anemukana wekuwana ongororo dzakanangana nekutsvaga hutachiona pachahwo, kwete kutsvaga masoja anodzivirira zvirwere. Vanhu vanenge vapinda mutsvakurudzo vanofanira kuongororwa kumakiriniki ari kuita tsvakurudzo iyi chete.

Hapana matambudziko ehutano anokonzerwa neVISP, asi VISP inogoba kukonzera matambudziko pakubatsirwa panyaya dzekuongororwa kweutano nemazino, kupinda mabasa, mainishuarenzi, kutsvaga mapepa ekufambisa kana kupinda muchiuto. Vanhu vanogona kurambidzwa kupa ropa kana imwe mitezo yemuviri. Kana vapinda musarudzo vari kutarisira kuzotsvaga basa, kutsvaga mainishuarenzi kana kupinda muchiuto, vanofanira vanofanira kuudza vashandi vepanzvimbo yavakapindira mutsvakurudzo ipapo ipapo. Kambani yeinishuarenzi, vemabasa vekumauto vanokwanisa kusabvumba zvinenge zvabuda paongororo yeHIV. Zvakadaro, veHVTN vanogona kushanda kushanda navo kuiitira kuti ongororo chaiyo yaiitwa kuratidza mamiriro emunhu chaiwo eHIV. Kana une masoja aya wobva wabata pamuviri, masoja aya anogona kutapurirwa kumwana anogona kuzonziwo ane HIV anotanga kupihwa mishonga. Kiriniki iri kuiitirwa tsvakurudzo inogona kukupa gwaro rezvinenge zvabuda muongororo yako kana uchinge uchiida.  

12. Ndingawana kupi humboo hwakawedzerwa?

Nezve tsvakurudzo dzemushonga inodzivirira zvirwere: www.clinicaltrials.gov

Nezvemibatanidzwa yemishonga inodzivirira zvirwere: www.hvtn.org

Nezve VISP: http://www.hvtn.org/VISP

Kana une imwe mibvunzo isina kupindurwa nechinyorwa chino bvunza isu Unogona kutibata pa: [email protected]