Malunga Ne-Imbokodo

Yintoni Imbokodo?

Imbokodo luphononongo olukhulu oluvavanya ukusebenza kakuhle kwentlanganisela yezitofu ezibini eziphononongwayo zokuthintela i-HIV. Ezi zitofu zophononongo kuthiwa yi-Ad26.Mos4.HIV (Ad26 vaccine) neClade C gp140 (isitofu seprotheni). Ezona njongo zingundoqo zolu phononongo kukufumanisa ukuba:

  • Zingakwazi na ezi zitofu ukuthintela ulosuleleko lwe-HIV?
  • Ingaba izitofu zikhuselekile na ukuba zinganikwa abantu?
  • Ingaba imixokelelwano yamajoni omzimba yabantu ingasabela na kwizitofu zophononongo?

Izitofu ezivavanywa kolu phononongo AZINAKHO ukubangela ulosuleleko lwe-HIV okanye i-AIDS. Azenziwanga nge-HIV ephilayo, nge-HIV ebuleweyo, ngamalungu athathwe kwi-HIV, okanye ngeeseli zomntu one-HIV. Zenziwe ngeekopi zamasuntswana e-HIV adalwe ngumntu ngoko ke azinakho ukubangela ulosuleleko lwe-HIV okanye lwe-AIDS. 

Ezi zitofu ziyaphononongwa. Oku kuthetha ukuba sisaziphanda kwaye siyaqhubeka nokufunda ngendlela ezikhuseleke ngayo ukuba zingasetyenziswa ebantwini nokuba zingaluthintela na ulosuleleko lwe-HIV.

Ezi zitofu zisetyenziselwa uphando kuphela. Azifumaneki kuwonkewonke okanye azifumaneki ukuze zithengwe. Ezi zitofu zibonelelwa ngabenzi bazo, uJanssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V., inxalenye ye-Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson.

Ndixelele Nangakumbi Nge-Imbokodo

Imbokodo luphononongo olukhulu olunenjongo yokungqina ukuba ezi zitofu zingawakhusela na amabhinqa asemazantsi e-Sahara e-Afrika kulosuleleko lwe-HIV. Ukuba i-Imbokodo ingabonisa ukuba ezi zitofu ziyasebenza kumabhinqa asemazantsi e-Sahara e-Afrika, oku kungalinyathelo elibaluleke kakhulu ekufumaneni isitofu esikhuselekileyo nesisebenza kakuhle esiya kukhusela abantu kwi-HIV ehlabathini liphela. 

Olunye uphononongo olukhulu, olwaqhutywa ngo-2009, lwabonisa okokuqala ukuba isitofu sinokuyithintela i-HIV, nangona sakwenza kancinci oku. Olo phononongo kwakusithiwa yi-RV144 kwaye lwenziwa eThailand lunabantu abangaphezu kwama- 16,000. Iziphumo bezinika imincili, kwaye zabonisa ukuba isitofu siluthintele olosuleleko olutsha kangange-31.2 pesenti. Oku kuthetha ukuba izitofu zophononongo ezasetyenziswa kwi-RV144 zaba nakho ukuthintela ulosuleleko lwe-HIV phantse kumntu omnye kwabathathu abafumene isitofu sophononongo. Nangona oku kwakungonelanga ukwenza ezi zitofu zifumane ilayisensi yokuba zisetyenziswe nguwonke-wonke, olu phononongo lwabonelela oosonzululwazi ngeempawu kunye nolwazi bebeludinga ukuze baphuhlise izitofu ezingcono. Ezi zitofu zivavanywayo kwi-Imbokodo zahlukile kwezo bezikulingo i-RV144. 

 Ezi zitofu zisetyenziswa kwi-Imbokodo, kunye nezitofu eziyeleleneyo, ziye zavavanywa kwiqela lophononongo oluncinci kunoluya. Olunye lolu phononongo luncinci kunoluya lwaziwa ngokuba yiNdlela yokuSebenza (Approach), esebenzisa isitofu se-Ad26 esiyelelene kakhulu kunye nesitofu seprotheni esifana nese-Imbokodo kwaye luqhutywa eMelika, eRwanda, e-Uganda, eMzantsi Afrika, naseThailand. Izitofu i-Ad26 neseprotheni ezisetyenziswa kwi-Imbokodo zikwanikwa nabantu abangama-235 kwisibini sophononongo esiseMelika, eKenya naseRwanda, nekuthiwa yi-HVTN 117 (Traverse) ne-HVTN 118 (Ascent). I-Traverse ne-Ascent lulingo olusekwisigaba esitsha apho abaphandi befuna ukufunda ukuba ingaba izitofu i-Ad26 neseprotheni (izitofu ezinye nezi zisetyenziswa kwi-Imbokodo) zikhuselekile na ukuba zinganikwa abantu; ukuba ingaba abantu banganakho na ukuthatha ezi zitofu zophonongo ngaphandle kokuphatheka kakubi kakhulu; nokuba ingaba imixokelelwano yamajoni omzimba yabantu Isabela njani kwezi zitofu zophononongo i-Ad26 neseprotheni. Iziphumo zokuqala ezivela kwi-Traverse, nakuphononongo i-Approach olukhankanywe apha ngasentla, zibonisile ukuba ezi zitofu zikhuselekile ukuba zinganikwa abantu kwaye zinikezele ngokusabela kakuhle kwamajoni omzimba.

Kuphononongo oluqhutyiweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, akukhange kubekho naziphi na iingxaki zempilo ezimandundu ezinxulumene nezi zitofu. Ukanti, kuhlala kunokwenzeka ukuba kubekho ingxaki ezingekabonwa. Yiloo nto enye intsingiselo yolu phononongo ikukuvavanya ukuba ingaba izitofu zikhuselekile kusini na xa zinikezelwe kubantu abongezelelekileyo. Impilo yomthathi-nxaxheba ngamnye iya kujongisiswa ngononophelo ebudeni balo lonke uphononongo.

Imbokodo yahlukile kuphononongo oluncinanana kuba, kwi-Imbokodo, abaphandi ngoku bajonge ukufunda ukuba ingaba izitofu i-Ad26 neseprotheni zinakho nyani na ukuthintela ulosuleleko lwe-HIV. 

Ngubani Owenza Uphononongo?

Uphononongo luqhutywa nguHVTN, u-Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V., inxalenye yeJanssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, nazo zonke iikliniki zophononongo ezithatha inxaxheba. La maqabane ayasebenzisana noluntu oluxhamlayo ukuqinisekisa ukuba olu phando lwamkelekile kuluntu lwengingqi kwaye luhlonipha amasiko engingqi.